The Johannes and Christina House is German Colonial in style. German settlers in the American colonies came in droves to central and northeastern Pennsylvania including Allentown, Hershey, Lancaster, Lebanon, and York as well as Frederick and Hagerstown, Maryland. Homes in this style are often rectangular and have a first floor plan built around three rooms or Flurkechenhaus (hall-kitchen house). The front door typically opens into the kitchen (or kuche), which spans the depth of the house and often also has a rear door. A parlor in the front (stube) and bedchamber in the rear (zimmer) are the other common rooms. Front façades are asymmetrical and chimneys are centralized. Steeply pitched gabled roofs are common and, in two-story examples, pent or visor roofs (wrap-around pent roofs) are typical.
With a believed construction date of 1752 (or 1754), the Johannes and Christina Schultz House is one of the oldest homes in York County and the oldest two-story German Colonial home in the area. There are three other notable German Colonials in eastern York County, all one-and-a-half stories in height. These include the 1736 Martin Schultz House in Hellam, 1740 Strickler Family Farmhouse on Concord Road, and 1785 (or earlier) Fisher House on Pleasant Acres Road. The original layout of the home is not known, but it most likely featured the three-room plan with central chimney. It is two and one-half stories in height – two livable stories plus a tall attic created via a steeply-pitched gable roof. The house faces north, and originally stood adjacent to the Monocacy Road, which was created in 1739 and connected Wrightsville with York, Hanover, and Frederick, MD. From the front elevation, the house is four bays (windows) in width with an off-center front door. The durable home was built of rough-cut limestone, which was laid in courses (row by row) and embellished with brownstone quoins at the corners, arched stone lintels, and a drip course that most likely held a pent roof that encircled the north, west, and east façades (also known as a visor roof).
Stone arches are present above first floor windows on the main elevations as well as the second and third story windows on the east and west elevations. The arches are created by narrow stones laid vertically in the wall. Painted metal half-round gutters and downspouts line the north and south elevations.
The original vaulted cellar, a unique feature found in only a handful of eighteenth century homes in the region, is located under the eastern portion of the house.
The Schultz House of today features end chimneys and a central hall, attributes that are more English in style then German. However, these are later modifications to the house. The original central chimney and fireplace was most likely removed during an 1820 renovation.
Windows are of the wooden double-hung sash variety and date from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Early nineteenth century paneled shutters remain on the first floor.
The interior spaces feature plastered walls and ceilings with eighteenth century wooden plank chair rail beneath the windows. Hardwood and wide-plank floors can be found throughout and several eighteenth century board-and-batten interior doors with strap hinges still remain. Because the exterior limestone walls are up to twenty-eight inches in thickness, deep plastered window sills and reveals are present.
The current interior layout contains a large parlor extending the depth of the house, a central stair hall, a dining room, and a kitchen. Two fireplaces are located on the first floor, including a late nineteenth century fireplace in the dining room and mid-twentieth century fireplace in the parlor.
Amos Green became owner of the Schultz House in 1825. He was a carpenter by trade and likely made a number of changes to the house, including removal of the central chimney and alterations to the floor plan. A.H. Glatz purchased the home in the 1870s, and gave it to his mother, Susan Glatz, in 1872. It was during this period that the Schultz House was again updated, including the roof, windows, fireplace mantels, exterior doors, and interior doors. A barn was built on the property in 1880. Clair and Beatrice Rowe purchased the historic farmstead in 1944 and begun updating it once again, adding central heat, installing a new kitchen, creating new bathrooms and closets, and replacing the shake roof with slate. They also built the slaughterhouse located on the property.